Vermont has driven growth in the artisanal cheese industry over the last 40 years. Today there are a dozen Vermont goat cheese brands, including the number two national brand of retail goat cheese. Due to the success of Vermont goat cheese makers, an estimated 5,000 additional milking goats could be needed in the state. In parallel to the goat dairy industry, the goat meat industry is still in development but has strong potential with both general and immigrant consumer markets. The goat industry represents a diversification opportunity for cow dairy operations, potentially contributing to keeping farms in business as well as maintaining a vibrant agriculture landscape in Vermont.
Farm to Plate 2.0 Strategic Plan Vermont Food System Plan Issue Brief: Food Access and Farm Viability
All Vermont residents should have access to nutritious local foods they can afford, and Vermont farms should all be profitable. However, many people in our state struggle with the rising cost of living, high housing and utility costs, transportation barriers, health issues, and underemployment, all of which can make it challenging to afford food. Today, 74,520 Vermonters are food insecure, including 18,760 children. To build a robust and equitable food system, we must address both food access and farm viability simultaneously. For the health and wellbeing of all eaters, food access cannot be addressed by the charitable food system alone but rather must be considered in relation to all the major market channels: retail, direct markets, and institutions. By increasing the ability of all eaters to access and use local food, we also benefit our farm businesses and the entire Vermont economy.
Consumers are concerned about where their food comes from, yet may not realize that the majority of local grain-based products (e.g., flour, bread, baked goods, beer, and spirits) are not made with locally grown grains. Local grains market opportunities are beyond direct-to-consumer, as brewers, maltsters, bakers, restaurant owners, food distributors, and others have all demonstrated interest in greater local product availability. For Vermont dairy farmers looking to diversify, growing grains is a feasible option because grains can be grown at scale, would benefit the forage rotation, are suitable for our soils and climate, and offer a diversified income stream. For farms to continue to, or transition to, growing edible grain, there needs to be additional equipment and infrastructure in Vermont for growing and processing, strong regional markets, access to capital, and research-based technical assistance.
Over a quarter of Vermont farms (1,833) sell directly to consumers through farmers markets, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), and other “direct market” channels.1 Direct markets are critical because they allow producers to capture more income for each product sold (compared to wholesale), require low up-front investment, give producers more autonomy over the products they sell, and foster customer relationships through experiential marketing (an increasingly important tactic across all industries). The trends towards consolidation and downward price pressure in wholesale markets favor larger producers and create challenges for many small to medium-scale producers, accentuating the importance of strengthening direct markets as the foundation of a working landscape of diverse farms at all scales.
For generations, Vermont has been defined by dairy, an industry that has an economic impact of $2.2 billion annually and adds nearly $3 million in circulating cash daily. Wherever you are in the state, and whomever you meet, you are not far removed from the dairy sector, and the socio-economic impacts stretch well beyond the farm gate. Many farm families have been on the same piece of land for over 100 years and hold deep-seated knowledge and a connection to a specific place across time. As the current dairy crisis roils the industry, Vermont is rapidly losing the highest-value use of the working landscape, putting the agricultural land base at risk of permanent loss.
Consumer demand for local, organic, and specialty foods have surged over the last ten years, helping Vermont’s agricultural vitality. As these markets are maturing, slowing growth and increased competition are leading to downward price pressure and other scale-related barriers for Vermont producers. While Vermont’s food producers are renowned for high-quality products, authentic stories, and inspiring social values, it can be difficult for these businesses to develop marketing platforms and messages in order to stand out in an increasingly crowded field. Americans are exposed to 4,000-10,000 ads each day and only about 100 will successfully penetrate the “attention wall.” If Vermont producers want to earn premium pricing, they will need resources and coordination to support strategic and compelling marketing tactics that are able to penetrate the noise and attract consumers’ scarce time and attention.
Farm to Plate 2.0 Strategic Plan Vermont Food System Plan Market Brief: College and Hospital Procurement
Colleges and universities, hospitals, and other health care facilities have a significant role to play in supporting Vermont’s farm and food sector. They are important community anchors, serving as employers, educators, and thought leaders who interact with most Vermonters on a regular basis. They buy over $40 million in food annually, on a consistent and reliable basis, and thus provide an important market opportunity for Vermont farmers and food manufacturers. The cafeterias at these institutions create meaningful and lasting impressions on patients, students, staff, and visitors about how and what to eat. Healthy, sustainable Vermont food should be on the menu.
Vermont will face considerable disruption to the local food system and farm profitability and viability because of climate change.1 In addition, the significant impact of climate change on global food production and supply chains intensifies the need to increase the resilience of Vermont farming and local food systems and maintain our agricultural land base. Supporting Vermont farmers’ efforts to adapt will also reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, improve water quality, and perhaps make farmers more competitive with farms outside Vermont. Additional training, education, financial support, and research on adaptation will help farmers be resilient and innovative as the climate continues to change.
Vermont boasts more state-inspected cheese producers per capita than any other state in the nation — close to one cheese maker for 13,000 people — generating more than $657 million in annual revenue. Vermont cheese makers create superior quality cheeses, winning national and international awards in numbers disproportionate to the size of our state. It takes ten pounds of milk to make one pound of cheese, making cheese a more consistently profitable option than fluid milk for dairy farmers. Vermont’s small dairy farms, challenging terrain, and short growing seasons create a disadvantage for Vermont dairy farmers relative to other national dairy producers in the commodity market but can be used as an advantage for value-added producers. Environmental concerns and low milk prices continue to be a struggle for many dairy farmers; however, dairy farms and related processing are central to Vermont’s landscape and identity (see Dairy brief, Goats brief). A viable future for Vermont dairy needs to be premised on a strategy that compensates for these challenges and leverages Vermont strengths.
Farm to Plate 2.0 Strategic Plan Vermont Food System Plan Issue Brief: Business and Technical Assistance
Water quality regulations, market changes, low farm gate prices, and increased competition are all challenging the profitability and future viability of Vermont farms and food businesses across most production types. Working with business and technical assistance service providers is an effective way to strengthen a business in good times and work through various options during challenging times. Vermont’s agricultural and food business and technical assistance network is well established and nationally renowned. However, additional effort, investment, and personnel are needed to ensure programs and providers keep up with the rapidly evolving needs of the agricultural and food sector (e.g., succession planning, dairy supply chain disruptions), so that they are able to continue to provide relevant, high-level, valuable services to businesses across the range of production types, scales, and markets.